What is Canine Minute Virus?
‘Parvoviridae’ family contains many of the smallest recognized viruses but most of which result in deadly or debilitating infections. The Discovery of many viruses that were later assigned to this family has solved etiologic mysteries of less-described animal diseases. Still many of the newly identified parvoviruses disease associations remain to be established as they appear to cause mild or no disease.
Canine minute virus in dogs is one such case, this is also known as canine parvovirus type 1 or minute virus of canines (MVC) of the Parvoviridae family.
The canine minute virus is an autonomous parvovirus that was first identified in 1967 from canine fecal specimens. MVC is antigenically different from canine parvovirus 2 (CPV2), which is a major causative agent of gastroenteritis.
MVC’s virulence and clinical significance are uncertain. Initially considered to be a nonpathogenic agent, later epidemiological and pathological studies suggested that MVC is a pathogen of neonatal puppies. MVC may cross the placenta, causing birth defects and early fetal death.
Young puppies and adolescent dogs are also most susceptible, and so are unvaccinated dogs.
Symptoms Of Canine Minute Virus
Treatment Options For Canine Minute Virus
There are no medications available to treat the canine minute virus in dogs.
- Immediate hospitalization and close monitoring are required as this virus, if not treated immediately, will cause death.
- Intravenous fluid and nutritional therapy will be given to help your dog not become severely dehydrated.
- Your vet keeps your dog hydrated and only treats the symptoms while the virus runs its course.
- Anti-emetics for nausea and vomiting.
- Anti-diarrhea medications.
- Antibiotics for any secondary bacterial infections from occurring.
Home Remedies For Canine Minute Virus
While the best prevention is to avoid high-risk locations or contact with an infected animal that is not always possible.
When potential exposure cannot be avoided, proper vaccination can prevent or reduce the symptoms, decrease the duration of the illness and prevent the spread.
How to Prevent Canine Minute Virus?
All proviruses (including the Canine minute virus) may persist in the environment for longer periods of time and are highly stable.
Many disinfectants commonly used in veterinary hospitals and shelters can easily kill the virus (formalin, phenols, and bleach solutions at a 1 to 30 dilution, sodium hypochlorite, beta propiolactone, oxidizing agents, and hydroxylamine).
Keep the suspected dog in isolation and after they are deemed recovered for at least two more weeks.
Make sure that your dog gets appropriate vaccinations.
Limit the exposure of puppies to other dogs that may be infected or carrying the virus until they have completed their puppy vaccination series.
Affected Dog Breeds Of Canine Minute Virus
There is no breed disposition
Additional Facts For Canine Minute Virus
- Direct contact with an infected dog
- transplacentally to the fetuses
- Indirect contacts such as on clothing or shoes
- Ingestion of infected fecal matter
- Stages of canine minute virus infection.
- Infection: The puppy (or adult dog) gets infected from direct and indirect contact with an infected dog.
- Incubation: 3- 7 days, the dog may not show any symptoms.
- Illness: Pathogenesis is not yet established. The MVC virus can cause a miscarriage for a dam infected at 25-30 days of gestation. The virus can also cause lesions in the fetus's small intestine and lungs. The most severe canine minute virus symptoms are manifested by puppies aged 1-3 weeks. When they are infected, they have difficulty breathing, severe diarrhea, and loss of appetite resulting in the death of puppies.
- Recovery: Recovery from MVC varies case by case. Complete recovery depends on the severity of the disease and the damage it has done.
When To See A Vet For Canine Minute Virus?
Dog owners should consult with their veterinarian as soon as they notice the symptoms as some conditions can be very serious (and possibly fatal).
Fecal parvo ELISA tests and PCR tests are the most common way of diagnosing parvovirus in a clinical setting.
Dog Food Suggestions For Canine Minute Virus
- High-quality protein (seafood, meat, dairy, or eggs).
- Leafy greens (Spinach, Kale, lettuce).
- Essential fatty acids (egg yolks, oatmeal).
- Broth or stock of boiled chicken bones.
- Tuna, salmon, cod, whiting, whitefish, trout, mackerel, sardines, and herring.
- Button Mushrooms, Oysters.
- Cooked or raw liver, Red
- Plant-based proteins peas, chickpeas, and lentils.
- Canned pumpkin, Carrots.
- Antioxidants- blueberries, strawberries.
Prognosis depends on your dog's immune response. This virus can be prevented through vaccination.
Keep informed about outbreaks of infections in your community. So that, if there’s canine influenza or any other kind of infections, you’ll get updates about how to keep your dog and yourself safe until the outbreak passes.